Water is an essential resource since time immemorial and no living organism can survive without it; as such treating it becomes a priority. Other than being used for irrigation, it is used for drinking, in industries, transportation and recreation. Increased population has resulted into more effluents being released into the water bodies rendering the available water unfit for end use. Agriculture is associated with the production of waste water requiring a variety of treatment technologies and inputs.  Water is passed through channels to remove the available pathogens, heavy metals and foreign particles. http://shambaza.com/, an online directory has given most Kenyan farmers a platform to understand the various technologies and chemicals used in the treatment of water making it acceptable for use http://shambaza.com/water%20treatment.  The process is simple as discussed:

 Chlorination: Chlorine is added to water so as to control and arrest any biological growth. It is added to disinfect and improve the overall quality. It primarily destroys pathogenic micro-organisms, oxidizes harmful elements and removes bad tastes and odor. Sodium chloride is the most common form of chlorine used in water treatment.

 

 Aeration: Chlorinated water is passed through oxygen otherwise known as oxygation so as to change the environment from anaerobic to aerobic. The process dissolves iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide into solid particles that are filtered out of the water. It also helps with taste and odor by oxidizing the organic contaminants that cause bad odor and taste. An Aquaza Oxy 300 (Potassium Permanganate) serves this purpose.

 Coagulation: is a process done to remove suspended particles and dirt in water. It is used in the purification of water. Aluminium Sulfate (alum) is added to the water as a coagulant forming clogs with the suspension. This then forms a floc (one large particle) that is removed as sediment at a later stage.  Hydrated lime, an alkaline compound is then added so as to raise the pH level of the water as Aluminum sulfate lowers the pH levels of any medium. 

Sedimentation: Separation of purified water from floc.

 Desalination: This refers to the removal of salt from water. Water is taken through reverse osmosis (refer to the website). Traditionally, the process is done through vacuum distillation where water is boiled at less atmospheric pressure and lower temperature.

 

 Disinfection: This is the final process of the treatment process. Water is taken through disinfection systems such as the 500 LPH so as to destroy any form of pathogen and foreign particles that may be hazardous. Sporekill, a chemical substance can also be used to disinfect water. In most cases fluoride concentrations is checked at this stage to ensure that they are at levels good enough not to cause harm.

Practising these simple steps and using the correct inputs at the comfort of your home will enable you make water more acceptable and friendly protecting not only you but the society at large. http://shambaza.com/water%20treatment

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